桃李久種自成蹊,老驥伏櫪志千里,揮別教鞭耕書園,退也不休建平台,藏書匯集懷德居,友朋羣聚嘉溪畔,新知交流唯斯處,經驗傳承好所在.─2004創館題詩─
懷德居木工實驗學校
5-9 巧工不及天啟帝| Category : 5木工世界| 2006/10/28 21:34

巧工不及天啟帝


略傳

明熹宗朱由校(1605~1627),光宗長子,明朝第15代皇帝。在位時間為16201627,年號天啟,在位時任用宦官魏忠賢,魏忠賢與乳母客氏沆瀣一氣、狼狽為奸。熹宗喜好木工,朝夕營造,膳飲可忘,魏忠賢總是乘他木工做得全神貫注時,拿重要的奏章去請他批閱,熹宗隨口說:「朕已悉矣!汝輩好為之」。魏忠賢逐漸專權,誣陷忠良,致使朝政腐敗。努爾哈赤則起於黑水白山之間,乘機攻佔瀋陽。熹宗死於1627年,時年23歲。熹宗無子,遺詔立五弟朱由檢為皇帝。


木匠皇帝
明熹宗朱由校,不聽先賢教誨“祖法堯舜,憲章文武”,卻去學魯班,學喻皓,學李誡,整天與斧子、鋸子、鉋子打交道。


熹宗時,外有金兵侵擾,內有山東徐鴻儒起義和陝西王二之起義。熹宗卻不務正業,只知道製作木器,蓋小宮殿。


吳寶崖在《曠園雜誌》中寫到:熹宗“嘗于庭院中蓋小宮殿,高四尺許,玲瓏巧妙”。由於經常沉迷其中,技巧嫺熟,據《先撥志》載:“斧斤之屬,皆躬自操之。雖巧匠,不能過焉。”熹宗的貪玩使得宦官專政,奸佞弄權,正如《酌中志餘》所述:“當斫削得意之時,或有急切章疏,奏請定奪,識字女官朗誦職銜姓名畢,玉音輒諭王體乾輩曰:‘我都知道了,你們用心行去。’諸奸於是恣其愛憎,批紅施行。”魏忠賢就是在這種情況下擴充勢力,步步奪權的。


《明史卷二十二•熹宗》中評說:“濫賞淫刑,忠良慘禍,億兆離心,雖欲不亡,何可得哉。”熹宗專心致志地蓋著他的“宮殿”,奸佞們卻在悄悄地挖著他的牆腳,熹宗死後僅十多年,明朝就滅亡了。

http://www.literature.idv.tw/bbs/Post.asp?method=ReplyQuote&REPLY_ID=12410&topic_id=5640&forum_id=66&cat_id=13&M


傳統士大夫觀念深植國人心坎,對於熹宗酷愛木工的行徑,多持負面評論,甚至列名中國十大怪癖皇帝。不過以下這段引自王世襄《明式家具研究》的文字:明劉若愚《酌中志》還有關於明熹宗的記載,稱其性巧多藝能,善木工營造,“自操斧鋸鑿削,即巧工不能及也。又好油漆匠,凡手使器具,皆御用監、內官監辦用。”上文祇能說明帝王愛好宮屋器用到了成癖的程度,否則四体不勤,好逸惡勞的統治者,是不會親自去參加勞動操作的。這樣子敘述看似比較持平。


天才木匠
明熹宗

中國古代稱皇帝為天子,既然是天子,必然會有至高無上的權威,享不盡的榮華富貴,但天子的身份也使他們不能無拘無束地享受平民的生活,明代就有這樣一位天子,如果他不做皇帝,肯定會是一個很好的木匠,那就是明熹宗朱由校。


明熹宗朱由校在歷代帝王中是很有特色的一個皇帝,他心靈手巧,對製造木器有極濃厚的興趣,凡刀鋸斧鑿、丹青揉漆之類的木匠活,他部要親自操作。他手造的漆器、床、梳匣等,均裝飾五彩,精巧絕倫,出人意料。史書上記載;明代天啟年間,匠人所造的床,極其笨重,十幾個人才能移動,用料多,樣式也極普通。喜宗便自己琢磨,設計圖樣,親自鋸木釘板,一年多工夫便造出一張床來,床板可以折疊,攜帶移動都很方便,床架上還雕鏤有各種花紋,美觀大方,為當時的工匠所嘆服。明喜宗還善用木材做小玩具,他做的小木人,男女老少,俱有神態,五官四肢,無不備具,動作亦很惟妙惟肖。喜宗還派內監拿到市面上去出售,市人都以重價購買,熹宗更加高興,往往下到半夜也不休息,常令身邊太監做他的助手。熹宗的漆工活也很在行,從配料到上漆,他都自己動手,並喜歡己的手藝。他做的木像男女不一,約高二尺,有雙臂但無腿足,均塗上五色油漆,彩畫如生,每個小木人下面的平底處安一鉤卯,用長三尺多的竹板支撐著。另外還有一個用大木頭鑿釘成的長寬各一丈的方木池,上面添水七分滿,水內放有活魚、蟹蝦、萍藻之類的海貨,使之浮於水面。再用凳子支起小方木池,周圍朋紗囤成螢幕,竹板在圍屏下,遊移拽動,這樣就形成了水傀儡的戲台。在螢幕的後面,有一藝人隨劇情將小木人用竹片托浮水上,遊鬥玩耍,鼓聲喧大。當時宮中常演的劇目有《東方朔偷桃》、《三保太監下西洋》、《八仙過海》、《孫行者大鬧龍宮》等,均裝束新奇,扮演巧妙,活靈活現。熹宗做得是如醉如癡,看得也是如醉如癡。每到冬季,西苑冰池封凍,冰堅且滑。熹宗便命一群太監隨他一起玩冰戲。他親自為自己設計了一個小拖床,床面小巧玲攏,僅容一人,塗上紅漆,上有一頂篷,周圍用紅綢緞為欄,前後都設有掛繩的小鉤,喜宗坐在拖床上,讓太監們拉引繩子,一部分人在上用繩牽引,一部分人在床前引導,一部分人在床後推行。兩面用力,拖床行進速度極快,瞬息之間就可往返數里。懸牌,整個工程中熹宗都親臨現場。熹宗心靈手巧,親手製作的娛樂工具頗為精巧。他用大缸盛滿水,水畫蓋上圓桶,在缸下鑽孔,通于桶底形成水噴,再放置許多小木球于噴水處,啟閉灌輸,水打木球,木球盤旋,久而不息,熹宗與妃嬪在一起觀賞喝彩。


熹宗好蓋房屋,喜弄機巧,常常是房屋造成後,高興得手舞足蹈,反復欣賞,等高興勁過後,又立即毀掉,重新造新樣製作,從不感到厭倦,興致高時,往往脫掉外衣操作,把治國平天下的事,早就拋到腦後,無暇過問。奸臣魏忠賢當然不會錯過這個良機,他常趁熹宗引繩削墨,興趣最濃時,拿上公文請熹宗批示,熹宗覺著影響了自己的興致,便隨口說道:“我已經知道了,你盡心照章辦理就是了。”明朝舊例,凡廷臣奏本,必由皇帝御筆親批;若是例行文書,由司禮監代擬批問,也必須寫上遵閣票字樣,或奉旨更改,用朱筆批,號為批紅。熹宗潛心於製作木器房屋,便把上述公務一概交給了魏忠賢,魏忠賢借機排斥異己,專權誤國,而熹宗卻耳無所聞,目無所見,可歎他是一名出色的工匠,卻使大明王朝在他的這雙手上搖搖欲墜。
http://www.zhsew.com/g/g5/200602/7771.html

Comment(11)Trackback(22)
Trackback Address : http://hdg.tosaint.com/trackback/36
stampe personalizzate quadri2020/01/08 23:39
jeans strappati neri <a href="http://www.reliablespot.com/priyanka/mocassino-rosso-bambino">mocassino rosso bambino</a> dolomite borsa tracolla per uomo <a href="http://www.reliablespot.com/refrigiwear/reggiseni-di-cotone-senza-ferretto">reggiseni di cotone senza ferretto</a> vestito carnevale zombie <a href="http://www.reliablespot.com/regalasi/vendita-orecchini-fatti-a-mano">vendita orecchini fatti a mano</a> maglietta zio nipote <a href="http://www.reliablespot.com/ricevimento/adidas-scarpe-uomo-amazon">adidas scarpe uomo amazon</a>
<a href="http://www.asrevip.com/americani/stampe-personalizzate-quadri" >stampe personalizzate quadri</a> [url=http://www.asrevip.com/americani/stampe-personalizzate-quadri]stampe personalizzate quadri[/url]
X gucci gg marmont mini quilted leather shoulder bag cream2020/01/11 02:40
filosofia abbigliamento teen elegante e casual chic <a href="http://www.sporsonews24.com/fotografia/goth-scarpe-da-uomo-scarpe-scarpe-e-borse">goth scarpe da uomo scarpe scarpe e borse</a> borsa tracolla trapuntata donna grande con tracolla catena ecopelle spalla mano ebay <a href="http://www.sporsonews24.com/hirshberg/jimmy-choo-d%c3%a9collet%c3%a9">jimmy choo d茅collet茅</a> prezzo franco fabbrica civo di modo orologi di lusso delle <a href="http://www.sporsonews24.com/ibrahimovic/dettagli-su-pigiama-donna-snoopy-lungo-in-jersey-cotone-pl20012-grigio-m">dettagli su pigiama donna snoopy lungo in jersey cotone pl20012 grigio m</a> pantaloni eleganti bambino <a href="http://www.sporsonews24.com/illuminazioni/prezzo-basso-2018-di-nuovo-modo-di-stampa-felpe-donne-kawaii">prezzo basso 2018 di nuovo modo di stampa felpe donne kawaii</a>
<a href="http://www.madhufriendsclub.com/tangipahoa_priddy/gucci-gg-marmont-mini-quilted-leather-shoulder-bag-cream" >gucci gg marmont mini quilted leather shoulder bag cream</a> [url=http://www.madhufriendsclub.com/tangipahoa_priddy/gucci-gg-marmont-mini-quilted-leather-shoulder-bag-cream]gucci gg marmont mini quilted leather shoulder bag cream[/url]
X gucci dionysus small shoulder bag leather pink in magenta2020/01/13 08:29
gucci sunglasses silver google express <a href="http://www.yallateb.com/lakecomo_kokhanok/gucci-rajah-bag">gucci rajah bag</a> the hottest trends michael kors outlet michael michael kors handbags <a href="http://www.yallateb.com/lakeluzerne_lathrup/chanel-wallet-on-chain-limited-edition-wallet-on-chain">chanel wallet on chain limited edition wallet on chain</a> gucci look t shirt <a href="http://www.yallateb.com/lapryor_starlake/chanel-wallet-on-chain-shoulder-bag-in-blue-quilted-leather">chanel wallet on chain shoulder bag in blue quilted leather</a> ace embroidered low top sneaker onlinedelux <a href="http://www.yallateb.com/lotuswoods_saintjacob/hot-sale-gucci-small-ophidia-leather-shoulder-bag-black">hot sale gucci small ophidia leather shoulder bag black</a>
<a href="http://www.updatesragen.com/barnwell_archville/gucci-dionysus-small-shoulder-bag-leather-pink-in-magenta" >gucci dionysus small shoulder bag leather pink in magenta</a> [url=http://www.updatesragen.com/barnwell_archville/gucci-dionysus-small-shoulder-bag-leather-pink-in-magenta]gucci dionysus small shoulder bag leather pink in magenta[/url]
X 诇讘 诇讗讞讚 诪讬讜讞讚 讬讜讬讜 转诪讜谞讜转2020/01/14 04:48
scarpin valentino preto <a href="http://www.somedudeyeah.com/componente/biquini-top-e-cintura-alta">biquini top e cintura alta</a> usaflex branco <a href="http://www.somedudeyeah.com/congelante/celular-com-carregador-solar">celular com carregador solar</a> tema infantil para festa de 2 anos <a href="http://www.somedudeyeah.com/copinhos/amissima-comprar">amissima comprar</a> filhote maltes <a href="http://www.somedudeyeah.com/crisalys/grito-de-guerra-de-portugal">grito de guerra de portugal</a>
<a href="http://www.canchaembarrada.com/manchaca_yutan/%d7%9c%d7%91-%d7%9c%d7%90%d7%97%d7%93-%d7%9e%d7%99%d7%95%d7%97%d7%93-%d7%99%d7%95%d7%99%d7%95-%d7%aa%d7%9e%d7%95%d7%a0%d7%95%d7%aa" >诇讘 诇讗讞讚 诪讬讜讞讚 讬讜讬讜 转诪讜谞讜转</a> [url=http://www.canchaembarrada.com/manchaca_yutan/%d7%9c%d7%91-%d7%9c%d7%90%d7%97%d7%93-%d7%9e%d7%99%d7%95%d7%97%d7%93-%d7%99%d7%95%d7%99%d7%95-%d7%aa%d7%9e%d7%95%d7%a0%d7%95%d7%aa]诇讘 诇讗讞讚 诪讬讜讞讚 讬讜讬讜 转诪讜谞讜转[/url]
X gucci black techno canvas messenger bag2020/01/14 05:18
size 38ddd paramour ariel wire free bralette <a href="http://www.eubv2010.com/retsof_rockland/jis-shaks-ko-ata-hai-wo-shaks-bhi-utna-hi-karta-aur-utna-hi-saaf-dil-hai-ali-karachi-pakistan">jis shaks ko ata hai wo shaks bhi utna hi karta aur utna hi saaf dil hai ali karachi pakistan</a> latest galaxy s10 leak offers new details on the most exciting samsung phone in years <a href="http://www.eubv2010.com/rockfish_harvey/diana-corset-bra-set-alana-milan-collection">diana corset bra set alana milan collection</a> hot sexy women underwear super sexy g string of the day buy sexy g <a href="http://www.eubv2010.com/saintjames_crane/divine-heritage-lace-western-shirt.-home-products-lace-western-shirt">divine heritage lace western shirt. home products lace western shirt</a> special prices on christina plus size tile underwire tankini <a href="http://www.eubv2010.com/saintjohn_iaeger/compression-bra-after-surgery">compression bra after surgery</a>
<a href="http://www.tradebns.com/whitethorn_grasscreek/gucci-black-techno-canvas-messenger-bag" >gucci black techno canvas messenger bag</a> [url=http://www.tradebns.com/whitethorn_grasscreek/gucci-black-techno-canvas-messenger-bag]gucci black techno canvas messenger bag[/url]
X p艂aszcz zimowy anemone w kolorze czarnym geographical2020/01/15 03:18
adidas originals zx flux sports torsion ocean blue white <a href="http://www.irunthismother.com/franquez_calaveras/salon-white-totalna-wyprzeda%c5%bc-kolekcji-2017.-nawet-50">salon white totalna wyprzeda偶 kolekcji 2017. nawet 50</a> haroka nov谩 sout臎啪 3x3 <a href="http://www.irunthismother.com/galva_myers/deepsea-lacivert-%c5%9fal-yaka-cep-biyeli-dar-kesim-spor-ka%c5%9fe">deepsea lacivert 艧al yaka cep biyeli dar kesim spor ka艧e</a> adidas ultraboost siyah erkek ko艧u ayakkab谋s谋 <a href="http://www.irunthismother.com/germania_longpond/beyaz-adidas-yeezy-boost-350">beyaz adidas yeezy boost 350</a> yeni hamile giyim ay elbise yaz ince kesit dantel hamile <a href="http://www.irunthismother.com/goldenhills_potsdam/elle-poland-on-instagram-ta-bia%c5%82a-bluzka-z-zara-sta%c5%82a-si%c4%99">elle poland on instagram ta bia艂a bluzka z zara sta艂a si臋</a>
<a href="http://www.thinkbeyondsky.com/southern_puuwai/p%c5%82aszcz-zimowy-anemone-w-kolorze-czarnym-geographical" >p艂aszcz zimowy anemone w kolorze czarnym geographical</a> [url=http://www.thinkbeyondsky.com/southern_puuwai/p%c5%82aszcz-zimowy-anemone-w-kolorze-czarnym-geographical]p艂aszcz zimowy anemone w kolorze czarnym geographical[/url]
X couple tattoo matching ink my husband and is heart locket and key2020/01/15 10:30
geometric triangle tattoo for couple <a href="http://www.bifen05.com/neenah_glenlyon/small-wrist-butterfly-flower-tattoos-small-wrist-butterfly-tattoos">small wrist butterfly flower tattoos small wrist butterfly tattoos</a> realistic female silicone hand <a href="http://www.bifen05.com/pikeville_hanover/awesome-wolf-tattoo-on-hand">awesome wolf tattoo on hand</a> 55 amazing nautical star tattoos with meanings <a href="http://www.bifen05.com/plantsville_dillingham/best-25-monkey-tattoos-ideas-on-pinterest-tattoos-pics">best 25 monkey tattoos ideas on pinterest tattoos pics</a> horror jason cartoon tattoo <a href="http://www.bifen05.com/prospect_yetter/eagle-tattoo-design-on-bicep">eagle tattoo design on bicep</a>
<a href="http://www.the-wibe.com/littlesioux_thurmond/couple-tattoo-matching-ink-my-husband-and-is-heart-locket-and-key" >couple tattoo matching ink my husband and is heart locket and key</a> [url=http://www.the-wibe.com/littlesioux_thurmond/couple-tattoo-matching-ink-my-husband-and-is-heart-locket-and-key]couple tattoo matching ink my husband and is heart locket and key[/url]
X torba sk贸rzana du偶a2020/01/18 13:50
伪谓未蟻喂魏维 蟺慰蠀位蠈尾蔚蟻 蟺位蔚魏蟿维 蟽蔚 蟺慰喂魏喂位委伪 蠂蟻蠅渭维蟿蠅谓 魏 渭蔚纬蔚胃蠋谓 <a href="http://www.asra-music12.com/dorcas_cornville/%ce%bc%cf%80%ce%bb%ce%bf%cf%8d%ce%b6%ce%b1-%ce%b1%cf%80%cf%8c-%ce%bf%cf%81%ce%b3%ce%b1%ce%bd%ce%b9%ce%ba%cf%8c-%ce%b2%ce%b1%ce%bc%ce%b2%ce%ac%ce%ba%ce%b9-%ce%bc%ce%b5-%cf%84%ce%b9%cf%81%ce%ac%ce%bd%cf%84%ce%b5%cf%82">渭蟺位慰蠉味伪 伪蟺蠈 慰蟻纬伪谓喂魏蠈 尾伪渭尾维魏喂 渭蔚 蟿喂蟻维谓蟿蔚蟼</a> 伪胃位畏蟿喂魏苇蟼 蟿蟽维谓蟿蔚蟼 salomon <a href="http://www.asra-music12.com/edgerton_sorrel/%cf%84%cf%81%ce%b1%cf%80%ce%b5%ce%b6%ce%b1%cf%81%ce%b9%ce%b1-%ce%b5%ce%be%cf%89%cf%84%ce%b5%cf%81%ce%b9%ce%ba%ce%bf%cf%85-%cf%87%cf%89%cf%81%ce%bf%cf%85">蟿蟻伪蟺蔚味伪蟻喂伪 蔚尉蠅蟿蔚蟻喂魏慰蠀 蠂蠅蟻慰蠀</a> 魏伪谓伪蟺蔚蟽 纬蠅谓喂伪 伪谓伪蟽蟿蟻蔚蠄喂渭慰蟽 蠀蠁伪蟽渭伪 蟽魏. 魏伪蠁蔚 <a href="http://www.asra-music12.com/elcerrito_hammocks/%ce%ba%ce%b1%ce%bb%cf%85%ce%bc%ce%bc%ce%b1-%ce%ba%ce%b1%cf%80%ce%ac%ce%ba%ce%b9%ce%b1-%ce%bb%ce%b5%ce%ba%ce%ac%ce%bd%ce%b7%cf%82">魏伪位蠀渭渭伪 魏伪蟺维魏喂伪 位蔚魏维谓畏蟼</a> 蟺伪谓蟿蔚位蠈谓喂 渭维纬蔚喂蟻伪 蟽蟿慰位苇蟼 蔚蟻纬伪蟽委伪蟼 蟺伪谓蟿蔚位蠈谓喂伪 蟽蔚蠁 <a href="http://www.asra-music12.com/fifty_ewagentry/%cf%87%ce%b5%ce%b9%ce%bc%ce%b5%cf%81%ce%b9%ce%bd%cf%8c-%ce%bc%cf%80%ce%bf%cf%85%cf%86%ce%ac%ce%bd-%ce%bc%ce%b7%cf%87%ce%b1%ce%bd%ce%ae%cf%82-3-4-nordcap-london">蠂蔚喂渭蔚蟻喂谓蠈 渭蟺慰蠀蠁维谓 渭畏蠂伪谓萎蟼 3 4 nordcap london</a>
<a href="http://www.teknokentnews.com/rozmawia艂em/torba-sk%c3%b3rzana-du%c5%bca" >torba sk贸rzana du偶a</a> [url=http://www.teknokentnews.com/rozmawia艂em/torba-sk%c3%b3rzana-du%c5%bca]torba sk贸rzana du偶a[/url]
X new sebby collection burgundy faux fur vest womens size large nwt2020/01/20 14:31
dark green wool body with white leather sleeves varsity men <a href="http://www.malinovian.com/forestcity_crossing/desigual-ladies-long-funky-jacket-worn-once">desigual ladies long funky jacket worn once</a> large coach rexy wristlet <a href="http://www.malinovian.com/forestriver_tuscaloosa/winter-autumn-womens-overcoat-female-hooded-tops-zipper-horn">winter autumn womens overcoat female hooded tops zipper horn</a> aw chiffon long bridesmaid dresses with short sleeves 2019 <a href="http://www.malinovian.com/fortjones_panes/odd-future-ofwgkta-of-donut-t-shirt-tyler-creator-golf-wang-sz-large">odd future ofwgkta of donut t shirt tyler creator golf wang sz large</a> handloom cotton scarf boho scarf scarves for women stole indian cotton scarf gypsy scarf <a href="http://www.malinovian.com/fortwright_thurmont/chinchilla-fur-scarf-with-ribbon">chinchilla fur scarf with ribbon</a>
<a href="http://www.kuzeshekaste.com/sandridge_crestview/new-sebby-collection-burgundy-faux-fur-vest-womens-size-large-nwt" >new sebby collection burgundy faux fur vest womens size large nwt</a> [url=http://www.kuzeshekaste.com/sandridge_crestview/new-sebby-collection-burgundy-faux-fur-vest-womens-size-large-nwt]new sebby collection burgundy faux fur vest womens size large nwt[/url]
X yellow high sandals2020/01/20 17:38
<a href="http://www.pronostici-serie-a.it/southtucson/dettagli-su-centralina-auto-aggiuntiva-mini-one-cooper-turbo-diesel-omaggio-orologio">dettagli su centralina auto aggiuntiva mini one cooper turbo diesel omaggio orologio</a><a href="http://www.pronostici-serie-a.it/spenard/tm18-maglia-donna-manica-corta-a-v-con-ricamo-lana-cotone">tm18 maglia donna manica corta a v con ricamo lana cotone</a><a href="http://www.pronostici-serie-a.it/springridge/vendita-calda-autoadesive-album-fotografico-per-bambini">vendita calda autoadesive album fotografico per bambini</a><a href="http://www.pronostici-serie-a.it/startex/salopette-jeans-uomo-loose-fit-blu-scuro-salopette-a-buon-mercato">salopette jeans uomo loose fit blu scuro salopette a buon mercato</a>
<a href="http://www.swsunews.com/skyforest/yellow-high-sandals" >yellow high sandals</a> [url=http://www.swsunews.com/skyforest/yellow-high-sandals]yellow high sandals[/url]
X wenger trachtenbluse2020/01/21 02:51
fischer verlobungsringe <a href="http://www.cultivonsleurope.com/plastik/tauchanzug-mares">tauchanzug mares</a> mode sneaker <a href="http://www.cultivonsleurope.com/powerbank/lange-herrenunterw%c3%a4sche">lange herrenunterw盲sche</a> schwarze pumps mit glitzer <a href="http://www.cultivonsleurope.com/preisland/outdoor-shop-flensburg">outdoor shop flensburg</a> heine handt眉cher von joop g眉nstig <a href="http://www.cultivonsleurope.com/regenbogenkette/rip-curl-online-shop-deutschland">rip curl online shop deutschland</a>
<a href="http://www.ayononton88.com/schuhgr枚脽e/wenger-trachtenbluse" >wenger trachtenbluse</a> [url=http://www.ayononton88.com/schuhgr枚脽e/wenger-trachtenbluse]wenger trachtenbluse[/url]
X

1 ..592593594595596597598599600.. 617