桃李久種自成蹊,老驥伏櫪志千里,揮別教鞭耕書園,退也不休建平台,藏書匯集懷德居,友朋羣聚嘉溪畔,新知交流唯斯處,經驗傳承好所在.─2004創館題詩─
懷德居木工實驗學校
5-9 巧工不及天啟帝| Category : 5木工世界| 2006/10/28 21:34

巧工不及天啟帝


略傳

明熹宗朱由校(1605~1627),光宗長子,明朝第15代皇帝。在位時間為16201627,年號天啟,在位時任用宦官魏忠賢,魏忠賢與乳母客氏沆瀣一氣、狼狽為奸。熹宗喜好木工,朝夕營造,膳飲可忘,魏忠賢總是乘他木工做得全神貫注時,拿重要的奏章去請他批閱,熹宗隨口說:「朕已悉矣!汝輩好為之」。魏忠賢逐漸專權,誣陷忠良,致使朝政腐敗。努爾哈赤則起於黑水白山之間,乘機攻佔瀋陽。熹宗死於1627年,時年23歲。熹宗無子,遺詔立五弟朱由檢為皇帝。


木匠皇帝
明熹宗朱由校,不聽先賢教誨“祖法堯舜,憲章文武”,卻去學魯班,學喻皓,學李誡,整天與斧子、鋸子、鉋子打交道。


熹宗時,外有金兵侵擾,內有山東徐鴻儒起義和陝西王二之起義。熹宗卻不務正業,只知道製作木器,蓋小宮殿。


吳寶崖在《曠園雜誌》中寫到:熹宗“嘗于庭院中蓋小宮殿,高四尺許,玲瓏巧妙”。由於經常沉迷其中,技巧嫺熟,據《先撥志》載:“斧斤之屬,皆躬自操之。雖巧匠,不能過焉。”熹宗的貪玩使得宦官專政,奸佞弄權,正如《酌中志餘》所述:“當斫削得意之時,或有急切章疏,奏請定奪,識字女官朗誦職銜姓名畢,玉音輒諭王體乾輩曰:‘我都知道了,你們用心行去。’諸奸於是恣其愛憎,批紅施行。”魏忠賢就是在這種情況下擴充勢力,步步奪權的。


《明史卷二十二•熹宗》中評說:“濫賞淫刑,忠良慘禍,億兆離心,雖欲不亡,何可得哉。”熹宗專心致志地蓋著他的“宮殿”,奸佞們卻在悄悄地挖著他的牆腳,熹宗死後僅十多年,明朝就滅亡了。

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傳統士大夫觀念深植國人心坎,對於熹宗酷愛木工的行徑,多持負面評論,甚至列名中國十大怪癖皇帝。不過以下這段引自王世襄《明式家具研究》的文字:明劉若愚《酌中志》還有關於明熹宗的記載,稱其性巧多藝能,善木工營造,“自操斧鋸鑿削,即巧工不能及也。又好油漆匠,凡手使器具,皆御用監、內官監辦用。”上文祇能說明帝王愛好宮屋器用到了成癖的程度,否則四体不勤,好逸惡勞的統治者,是不會親自去參加勞動操作的。這樣子敘述看似比較持平。


天才木匠
明熹宗

中國古代稱皇帝為天子,既然是天子,必然會有至高無上的權威,享不盡的榮華富貴,但天子的身份也使他們不能無拘無束地享受平民的生活,明代就有這樣一位天子,如果他不做皇帝,肯定會是一個很好的木匠,那就是明熹宗朱由校。


明熹宗朱由校在歷代帝王中是很有特色的一個皇帝,他心靈手巧,對製造木器有極濃厚的興趣,凡刀鋸斧鑿、丹青揉漆之類的木匠活,他部要親自操作。他手造的漆器、床、梳匣等,均裝飾五彩,精巧絕倫,出人意料。史書上記載;明代天啟年間,匠人所造的床,極其笨重,十幾個人才能移動,用料多,樣式也極普通。喜宗便自己琢磨,設計圖樣,親自鋸木釘板,一年多工夫便造出一張床來,床板可以折疊,攜帶移動都很方便,床架上還雕鏤有各種花紋,美觀大方,為當時的工匠所嘆服。明喜宗還善用木材做小玩具,他做的小木人,男女老少,俱有神態,五官四肢,無不備具,動作亦很惟妙惟肖。喜宗還派內監拿到市面上去出售,市人都以重價購買,熹宗更加高興,往往下到半夜也不休息,常令身邊太監做他的助手。熹宗的漆工活也很在行,從配料到上漆,他都自己動手,並喜歡己的手藝。他做的木像男女不一,約高二尺,有雙臂但無腿足,均塗上五色油漆,彩畫如生,每個小木人下面的平底處安一鉤卯,用長三尺多的竹板支撐著。另外還有一個用大木頭鑿釘成的長寬各一丈的方木池,上面添水七分滿,水內放有活魚、蟹蝦、萍藻之類的海貨,使之浮於水面。再用凳子支起小方木池,周圍朋紗囤成螢幕,竹板在圍屏下,遊移拽動,這樣就形成了水傀儡的戲台。在螢幕的後面,有一藝人隨劇情將小木人用竹片托浮水上,遊鬥玩耍,鼓聲喧大。當時宮中常演的劇目有《東方朔偷桃》、《三保太監下西洋》、《八仙過海》、《孫行者大鬧龍宮》等,均裝束新奇,扮演巧妙,活靈活現。熹宗做得是如醉如癡,看得也是如醉如癡。每到冬季,西苑冰池封凍,冰堅且滑。熹宗便命一群太監隨他一起玩冰戲。他親自為自己設計了一個小拖床,床面小巧玲攏,僅容一人,塗上紅漆,上有一頂篷,周圍用紅綢緞為欄,前後都設有掛繩的小鉤,喜宗坐在拖床上,讓太監們拉引繩子,一部分人在上用繩牽引,一部分人在床前引導,一部分人在床後推行。兩面用力,拖床行進速度極快,瞬息之間就可往返數里。懸牌,整個工程中熹宗都親臨現場。熹宗心靈手巧,親手製作的娛樂工具頗為精巧。他用大缸盛滿水,水畫蓋上圓桶,在缸下鑽孔,通于桶底形成水噴,再放置許多小木球于噴水處,啟閉灌輸,水打木球,木球盤旋,久而不息,熹宗與妃嬪在一起觀賞喝彩。


熹宗好蓋房屋,喜弄機巧,常常是房屋造成後,高興得手舞足蹈,反復欣賞,等高興勁過後,又立即毀掉,重新造新樣製作,從不感到厭倦,興致高時,往往脫掉外衣操作,把治國平天下的事,早就拋到腦後,無暇過問。奸臣魏忠賢當然不會錯過這個良機,他常趁熹宗引繩削墨,興趣最濃時,拿上公文請熹宗批示,熹宗覺著影響了自己的興致,便隨口說道:“我已經知道了,你盡心照章辦理就是了。”明朝舊例,凡廷臣奏本,必由皇帝御筆親批;若是例行文書,由司禮監代擬批問,也必須寫上遵閣票字樣,或奉旨更改,用朱筆批,號為批紅。熹宗潛心於製作木器房屋,便把上述公務一概交給了魏忠賢,魏忠賢借機排斥異己,專權誤國,而熹宗卻耳無所聞,目無所見,可歎他是一名出色的工匠,卻使大明王朝在他的這雙手上搖搖欲墜。
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