桃李久種自成蹊,老驥伏櫪志千里,揮別教鞭耕書園,退也不休建平台,藏書匯集懷德居,友朋羣聚嘉溪畔,新知交流唯斯處,經驗傳承好所在.─2004創館題詩─
懷德居木工實驗學校
10-4 祇知其一 半桶師| Category : 10有料教材| 2007/05/15 08:05

祇知其一 半桶師

不識其二 問題多


榫卯結構 可說是傳統木作的靈魂。王世襄先生對榫卯有過這樣的話:「各構件之間能夠有機地交代連結而達到如此的成功,是因為那些互避互讓、但又相輔相成的榫子和卯眼起著決定性的作用。……構件之間,金屬的釘子完全不用,鰾膠黏合也只是一種輔佐手段,憑藉榫卯就可以做到上下左右、粗細斜直,連結合理,面面俱到,工藝精確,扣合嚴密,間不容髮,常使人喜歡讚歎,有天衣無縫之妙。」這段話將中國傳統家具的工藝技法說得活神活現,而古代工匠在榫卯結構上的造詣也確實不凡。


好一句 間不容髮,意思說工藝精確到 天衣無縫 的地步,換成西方人的木工術語 Tight Joint,愈緊密愈好。榫接愈緊密,結構強度也愈大,就此而言,愈緊愈好殆無疑義,不過卻忽略了木頭是活材料,並具方向性,如果所有榫卯間隙都做到天衣無縫,那麼收縮膨脹所產生的應力,往往可能會大到破壞結構體,如此不問青紅皂白,全部榫卯都做成 緊固接合(Tight Joint,即可能未蒙其利先受其害!所以值得木工人另向思考,在不影響整體結構強度之下,有些部位宜採 浮動構造(Floating Construction是為上策。



在此特舉 攢邊裝板Framed Panel)之門板結構(Door Construction)和西方四柱床(Poster Bed)之實木床頭板(Headboard)為例說明。聰明的你,一定可以舉一反三,妥善思考你的木工設計了。


門板造法:
如圖1中間肚板四周削薄,然後嵌入邊框的凹槽裡,組裝而成,也即肚板和四周構件採舌槽接合(Tongue and Groove Joint),現就藉這片門板為例,來討論兩個課題:其一:舌長與槽深如何決定?舌短:將來肚板收縮可能脫落;槽淺:萬一門板膨脹,勢必撐開接合部位。過猶不及,當然得好好算計。其二:肚板與四周構件應採 緊固接合 抑或 浮動結構,值得思量。


圖1:攢邊門板

實木床頭板與床柱造法:如圖2所示,床頭板的A B兩部位與床柱接合,就床柱而言AB間距,因為縱向,收縮或膨脹,勿庸過慮;但床頭板的A B間距,不是徑向就是弦向,收縮或膨脹,相當可觀,如果兩者皆採Tight Joint,收縮或膨脹應力無法舒解,床頭板極可能裂開,或榫接部位受到破壞。因此AC部位須採 緊固接合,但B部位就應採 浮動結構,如圖3細部所示。

圖2:床頭板結構示意
圖3:細部

其他實例:
圖4:肚板嚴重收縮露白


圖5:櫥櫃側板收縮開裂
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